Alalakh was an ancient city-state, a late Bronze Age capital in the Amuq River valley of Turkey's Hatay Province.
It was occupied from before 2000 BC, when the first palace was built,
and likely destroyed in the 12th century BC and never reoccupied. The
city contained palaces, temples, private houses and fortifications.
Modern Antakya has developed near the site.
The remains of Alalakh have formed an extensive mound; the modern archaeological site is known as Tell Atchana. It was first excavated in the 1930s and 1940s by a British team. A team sponsored by the University of Chicago started surveys in the late 20th century, and has conducted excavations led by K. Aslihan Yener in the early 21st century. She is now leading work sponsored by Mustafa Kemal University and the Turkish government.
Alalakh was founded by the Amorites (in the territory of present-day Turkey) during the early Middle Bronze Age in the late 3nd millennium BC. The first palace was built c. 2000 BC, contemporary with the Third Dynasty of Ur.
The written history of the site may begin under the name Alakhtum, with tablets from Mari in the 18th century BC, when the city was part of the kingdom of Yamhad (modern Aleppo). A dossier of tablets records that King Sumu-Epuh sold the territory of Alakhtum to his son-in-law Zimri-Lim,
king of Mari, retaining for himself overlordship. After the fall of
Mari in 1765 BC, Alalakh seems to have come under the rule of Yamhad
again. King Abba-El I of Aleppo bestowed it upon his brother Yarim-Lim, to replace the city of Irridu. Abba-El had destroyed the latter after it revolted against his brother Yarim-Lim.
A dynasty of Yarim-Lim's descendants was founded, under the hegemony of
Aleppo, that lasted to the 16th century. According to the short chronology found at Mari, at that time Alalakh was destroyed, most likely by Hittite king Hattusili I, in the second year of his campaigns.
After a hiatus of less than a century, written records
for Alalakh resume. At this time, it was again the seat of a local
dynasty. Most of the information about the founding of this dynasty
comes from a statue inscribed with what seems to be an autobiography of the dynasty's founding king.
According to his inscription, in the 15th century BC, Idrimi, son of the king of Yamhad, may have fled his city for Emar, traveled to Alalakh, gained control of the city, and been recognized as a vassal by Barattarna.
The inscription records Idrimi's vicissitudes: after his family had
been forced to flee to Emar, he left them and joined the "Hapiru people" in "Ammija in the land of Canaan."
The Hapiru recognized him as the "son of their overlord" and "gathered
around him"; after living among them for seven years, he led his Habiru
warriors in a successful attack by sea on Alalakh, where he became
However, according to the archeological site report, this statue
was discovered in a level of occupation dating several centuries after
the time that Idrimi lived. There has been much scholarly debate as to
its historicity. Archeologically-dated tablets recount that Idrimi's
son Niqmepuh was contemporaneous with the Mitanni king Saushtatar.
This seems to support the inscription on the statue claiming that
Idrimi was contemporaneous with Barattarna, Saushtatar's predecessor.
The socio-economic history of Alalakh during the reign of
Idrimi's son and grandson, Niqmepuh and Ilim-ilimma, is well documented
by tablets excavated from the site. Idrimi is referred to rarely in
In the mid-14th century BC, the Hittite Suppiluliuma I defeated king Tushratta of Mitanni and assumed control of northern Syria, then including Alalakh, which he incorporated into the Hittite Empire. A tablet records his grant of much of Mukish's land (that is, Alalakh's) to Ugarit, after the king of Ugarit alerted the Hittite king to a revolt by the kingdoms of Mukish, Nuhassa, and Niye. The majority of the city was abandoned by 1300 BC. Alalakh was probably destroyed by the Sea People in the 12th century BC, as were many other cities of coastal Anatolia and the Levant. The site was never reoccupied, the port of Al Mina taking its place during the Iron Age.