Comana was a city of Cappadocia and later Cataonia (Latin: Comana Cataoniae; frequently called Comana Chryse or Aurea, i.e. "the golden", to distinguish it from Comana in Pontus). The Hittite toponym Kummanni is considered likely to refer to Comana, but the identification is not considered proven. Its ruins are at the modern Turkish village of Şar [tr], Tufanbeyli district, Adana Province.
a variety of the great west Asian nature-goddess, were celebrated with
much solemnity. The service was carried on in a sumptuous temple with
great magnificence by many thousands of hieroduli
(temple slaves). To defray expenses, large estates had been set apart,
which yielded a more than royal revenue. The city, a mere apanage of the
temple, was governed directly by the chief priest, who was always a
member of the reigning Cappadocian family, and took rank next to the
king. The number of persons engaged in the service of the temple, even
time, was upwards of 6000, and among these, to judge by the names
common on local tomb-stones, were many Persians. Under the Romans the
temple was reassigned to Bellona and Lycomedes established as high priest. Emperor Caracalla, made Comana a Roman colony, and the temple-city received honors from later emperors down to the official recognition of Christianity. Comana Chryse, or the golden, appears from one of the Novellae of Justinian (Nov. 31. c. 1), to distinguish it from the Comana in Pontus. It was in the division which he named the Third Armenia, and which, he observes, contained Melitene, near the Euphrates.
There was a tradition that Orestes, with his sister, brought from Tauric Scythia the sacred rites of this temple, which were those of Tauropolos Artemis. Here Orestes deposited the hair that he cut from his head to commemorate the end of his sufferings (ἡ πένθιμος κόμη),
and hence, according to a folk etymology of the Greeks, came the name
of the place, Comana. And in later times, to make the name suit the
story better, as it was supposed, it was changed to ἡ Κόμανα. (Eustath. ad Dionys. v. 694; Procop. Persic. i. 17.)
The city minted coins in antiquity that bear the epigraphs Col. Aug. Comana, and Col. Iul. Aug. Comanenoru or Comainoru.
The site lies at Şarköy or Şar (once usually transcribed Shahr), a village in the Anti-Taurus on the upper course of the Sarus (Sihun), mainly Armenian, but surrounded by later settlements of Avshar Turkomans and Circassians.
The place has derived importance both in antiquity and now from its
position at the eastern end of the main pass of the western Anti-Taurus
range, the Kuru Çay, through which passed the road from Caesarea-Mazaca (modern Kayseri) to Melitene (modern Malatya), converted by Septimius Severus
into the chief military road to the eastern frontier of the empire. The
extant remains at Şar include a theatre on the left bank of the river, a
fine Roman doorway and many inscriptions; but the exact site of the
great temple has not been satisfactorily identified. There are many
traces of Severus's road, including a bridge at Kemer, and an immense
number of milestones, some in their original positions, others reused in