Miletus was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria. Its ruins are located near the modern village of Balat in Aydın Province, Turkey. Before the Persian invasion in the middle of the 6th century BC, Miletus was considered the greatest and wealthiest of Greek cities.
Evidence of first settlement at the site has been made
inaccessible by the rise of sea level and deposition of sediments from
the Maeander. The first available evidence is of the Neolithic.
In the early and middle Bronze Age the settlement came under Minoan influence. Legend has it that an influx of Cretans occurred displacing the indigenous Leleges. The site was renamed Miletus after a place in Crete.
The Late Bronze Age, 13th century BC, saw the arrival of Luwian language speakers from south central Anatolia calling themselves the Carians. Later in that century other Greeks arrived. The city at that time rebelled against the Hittite Empire.
After the fall of that empire the city was destroyed in the 12th
century BC and starting about 1000 BC was resettled extensively by the Ionian Greeks. Legend offers an Ionian foundation event sponsored by a founder named Neleus from the Peloponnesus.
The Greek Dark Ages were a time of Ionian settlement and consolidation in an alliance called the Ionian League. The Archaic Period of Greece began with a sudden and brilliant flash of art and philosophy on the coast of Anatolia. In the 6th century BC, Miletus was the site of origin of the Greek philosophical (and scientific) tradition, when Thales, followed by Anaximander and Anaximenes (known collectively, to modern scholars, as the Milesian School)
began to speculate about the material constitution of the world, and to
propose speculative naturalistic (as opposed to traditional,
supernatural) explanations for various natural phenomena.
The earliest available archaeological evidence indicates that the
islands on which Miletus was originally placed were inhabited by a Neolithic population in 3500–3000 BC. Pollen in core samples from Lake Bafa in the Latmus region inland of Miletus suggests that a lightly grazed climax forest prevailed in the Maeander valley, otherwise untenanted. Sparse Neolithic settlements were made at springs, numerous and sometimes geothermal
in this karst, rift valley topography. The islands offshore were
settled perhaps for their strategic significance at the mouth of the
Maeander, a route inland protected by escarpments. The graziers in the valley may have belonged to them, but the location looked to the sea.
(Acts 20:15–38). It is believed that Paul stopped by the Great Harbour
Monument and sat on its steps. He might have met the Ephesian elders
there and then bade them farewell on the nearby beach. Miletus is also
the city where Paul left Trophimus, one of his travelling companions, to recover from an illness (2 Timothy
4:20). Because this cannot be the same visit as Acts 20 (in which
Trophimus accompanied Paul all the way to Jerusalem, according to Acts
21:29), Paul must have made at least one additional visit to Miletus,
perhaps as late as AD 65 or 66. Paul's previous successful three-year
ministry in nearby Ephesus resulted in the evangelization of the entire province of Asia (see Acts 19:10, 20; 1 Corinthians
16:9). It is safe to assume that at least by the time of the apostle's
second visit to Miletus, a fledgling Christian community was established