Termessos was a Pisidian
city built at an altitude of more than 1000 metres at the south-west
side of the mountain Solymos (modern-day Güllük Dağı) in the Taurus Mountains (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey). It lies 30 kilometres to the north-west of Antalya.
It was founded on a natural platform on top of Güllük Dağı, soaring to a
height of 1,665 metres from among the surrounding travertine mountains
Concealed by pine forests and with a peaceful and untouched
appearance, the site has a more distinct and impressive atmosphere than
many other ancient cities.
Termessos is one of the best preserved of the ancient cities of
Turkey. The city was founded by the Solims who were mentioned by Homer in the Iliad in connection with the legend of Bellerophon.
Because of its natural and historical riches, the city has been included in a national park bearing its name, the Mount Güllük-Termessos National Park.
The mythical founder of the city is Bellerophon.
What is known of Termessos' history commences principally at the time that Alexander the Great surrounded the city in 333 BC; he likened the city to an eagle's nest and in one of few cases, failed to conquer it. Arrian,
one of the ancient historians who dealt with this event and recorded
the strategic importance of Termessos, notes that even a small force
could easily defend it due to the insurmountable natural barriers
surrounding the city. The location of the city at the mountain pass from
the Phrygian hinterland to the plains of Pamphylia
is described by Arrian, Annals 1,26,6. Alexander wanted to go to
Phrygia from Pamphylia, and according to Arrian, the road passed by
Termessos. There are other passes much lower and easier to access, so
why Alexander chose to ascend the steep Yenice pass is still a matter of
dispute. It is even said that his hosts in Perge
sent Alexander up the wrong path. Alexander wasted a lot of time and
effort trying to force his way through the pass, which had been closed
by the Termessians, and so, in anger he turned toward Termessos and
surrounded it. Probably because he knew he could not capture the city,
Alexander did not undertake an assault, but instead marched north and
vented his fury on Sagalassos.
According to Strabo,
the inhabitants of Termessos called themselves the Solymi and were a
Pisidian people. Their name, as well as that given to the mountain on
which they lived, was derived from Solymeus, an Anatolian god who in later times became identified with Zeus, giving rise there to the cult of Zeus Solymeus
(Solim in Turkish). This name still exists as a surname in some people
in Antalya region, providing evidence to their Solymi heritage. The
coins of Termessos often depict this god and give his name.
The historian Diodorus
has recorded in full detail another unforgettable incident in the
history of Termessos. In 319 BC, after the death of Alexander, one of
his generals, Antigonos Monophtalmos, proclaimed himself master of Asia Minor and set out to do battle with his rival Alcetas, whose base of support was Pisidia.
His forces were made up of some 40,000 infantry, 7,000 cavalry, and
included numerous elephants as well. Unable to vanquish these superior
forces, Alcetas and his friends sought refuge in Termessos. The
Termessians gave Alcetas their word that they would help him.
At this time, Antigonos came and set up camp in front of the
city, seeking delivery of his rival. Not wanting their city to be
dragged into disaster for the sake of a Macedonian foreigner, the elders
of the city decided to hand Alcetas over to Antigonos. However, the
youths of Termessos wanted to keep their word and refused to go along
with the plan. The elders sent Antigonos an envoy to inform him of their
intent to surrender Alcetas. According to a secret plan to continue the
fight, the youth of Termessos managed to leave the city. Learning of
his imminent capture and preferring death to being handed over to his
enemy, Alcetas killed himself. The elders delivered his corpse to
Antigonos. After subjecting the corpse to all manner of abuse for three
days, Antigonos departed Pisidia leaving the corpse unburied. The youth,
greatly resenting what had happened, recovered Alcetas' corpse, buried
it with full honours, and erected a beautiful monument to his memory.
Termessos was obviously not a port city, but its lands stretched
south-east all the way to the Gulf of Attaleia (Antalya). Because the
city possessed this link to the sea it was taken by the Ptolemies.
An inscription found in the Lycian city of Araxa yields important
information about Termessos. According to this inscription, in the 2nd
century BC, Termessos was at war for unknown reasons with the league of
Lycian cities, and again in 189 BC found itself battling its Pisidian
neighbour Isinda. At this same time we find the colony of Termessos
Minor being founded 85 km in the south-south-west (Oinoanda) in the 2nd century BC. Termessos entered into friendly relations with Attalos II, king of Pergamon, the better to combat its ancient enemy Selge. Attalos II commemorated this friendship by building a two-storied stoa in Termessos.
Termessos was an ally of Rome, and so in 71 BC was granted independent status by the Roman Senate;
according to this law its freedom and rights were guaranteed. This
independence was maintained continuously for a long time, the only
exception being an alliance with Amyntas king of Galatia (reigned 36-25 BC). This independence is documented also by the coins of Termessos, which bear the title "Autonomous".
The end of Termessos came when its aqueduct
was crushed in an earthquake, destroying the water supply to the city.
The city was abandoned (year unknown), which helps to explain its
remarkable state of preservation today.
temples of varying sizes and types have been accounted for at Termessos.
Four of these are found near the odeon in an area that must have been
sacred. The first of these temples is located directly at the back of
the odeon and is constructed of truly splendid masonry. It has been
proposed that this was temple of the city's chief god, Zeus Solymeus.
What a pity, then, that apart from its five-metre-high cella walls, very
little remains of this temple.
The second temple lies near the south-west corner of the odeon.
It possesses a 5.50 × 5.50 metre cella and is of the prostylos type.
According to an inscription found on the still complete entrance, this
temple was dedicated to Artemis, and both the building and the cult
statue inside were paid for by a woman named Aurelia Armasta and her
husband using their own funds. To the other side of this entrance, a
statue of this woman's uncle stands on an inscribed base. The temple can
be dated on stylistic grounds to the end of the 2nd century AD.
To the east of the Artemis temple are the remains of a Doric
temple. It is of the peripteral type, with six or eleven columns to a
side; judging from the size of it, it must have been the largest temple
in Termessos. From surviving reliefs and inscriptions, it too, is
understood to have been dedicated to Artemis.
Further to the east, the ruins of another smaller temple lie on a
rock-hewn terrace. The temple rose on a high podium, but to what god it
was dedicated is not known at present. However, contrary to general
rules of classical temple architecture, the entrance to this temple lies
to the right, indicating that it may have belonged to a demi-god or
hero. It can be dated to the beginning of the 3rd century AD.
As for the other two temples, they are located near the stoa of Attalos belong to the Corinthian order,
and are of the prostylos type. Also dedicated to deities who are as yet
unknown, these temples can be dated to the 2nd or 3rd century AD.
to the east of the agora lies the theatre. Commanding a view out over
the Pamphylian plain, this building is no doubt the most eyecatching in
all the Termessos plain. It displays most clearly the features of the
Roman theatre, which preserved the Hellenistic period theatre plan. The
or semicircular seating area, is divided in two by a diazoma. Above the
diazoma rise eight tiers of seats, below it are sixteen, allowing for a
of some 4-5,000 spectators. A large arched entrance way connects the
cavea with the agora. The southern parados was vaulted in Roman times,
the northern has been left in its original open-air state. The stage
building exhibits features characteristic of the 2nd century AD. A long
narrow room is all that lies behind it. This is connected with the
podium where the play took place, by five doors piercing the richly
ornamented facade or scaenae frons. Under the stage lie five small rooms
where wild animals were kept before being taken into the orchestra for
As in other classical cities, an odeon
lies about 100 metres from the theatre. This building, which looks like
a small theatre, can be dated to the 1st century BC. It is well
preserved all the way to roof level and exhibits the finest quality
ashlar masonry. The upper storey is ornamented in the Doric order and
coursed with square-cut blocks of stone, while the lower storey is
unornamented and pierced by two doors. It is certain that the building
was originally roofed, since it received its light from eleven large
windows in the east and west walls. Just how this roof, which spanned
25 metres, was housed, has not been determined yet. Because the interior
is full of earth and rubble at present, it is not possible to gauge
either the building's seating arrangement or its capacity. Seating
capacity was probably not larger than 600-700. Amid the rubble, pieces
of coloured marble have been unearthed, giving rise to the possibility
that the interior walls were decorated with mosaic. It is also possible
that this elegant building served as the bouleuterion or council chamber.