Cerenorm

26 May 17:08

Troy

TR > Çanakkale Province > Merkez

Troy  was a city in the northwest of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), southwest of the Canakkale Strait, south of the mouth of the Dardanelles and northwest of Mount Ida. The location in the present day is the hill of Hisarlik

and its immediate vicinity. In modern scholarly nomenclature, the Ridge

of Troy (including Hisarlik) borders the Plain of Troy, flat

agricultural land, which conducts the lower Scamander River to the strait. Troy was the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the name Ἴλιον (Ilion) formerly began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον (Wilion); this is also supported by the Hittite name for what is thought to be the same city, Wilusa.

After a destruction at the end of the Bronze Age,

believed to represent the end of the Trojan War, and a period of

abandonment or near-abandonment during the subsequent Dark Age, the site

acquired a new population of Greek-speakers, who built a classical city

that became along with the rest of Anatolia a part of the Persian

Empire. The Troad was liberated by Alexander the Great, an admirer of

Achilles, who he believed had the same type of glorious (but

short-lived) destiny. After the Roman conquest of this now Hellenistic

Greek-speaking world, a new capital called Ilium (from Greek: Ἴλιον, Ilion) was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, became a bishopric, was abandoned, repopulated for a few centuries in the Byzantine era, was abandoned again, and is now a Latin Catholic titular see. Most recently it has risen to prominence as an archaeological site.

In the mid-19th century the Calvert family, wealthy Levantine

English settlers of the Troad, occupying a working farm a few miles from

Hisarlik, purchased much of the hill in the belief that it contained

the ruins of Troy. They were antiquarians. Two of the family, Frederick

and especially the youngest, Frank, surveyed the Troad and conducted a

number of trial excavations there. In 1865, Frank Calvert

excavated trial trenches on the hill, discovering the Roman settlement.

Realizing he did not have the funds for a full excavation, he attempted

to recruit the British Museum, and was refused. A chance meeting with

Calvert in Çanakkale and a visit to the site by Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist, also looking for Troy, offered a second opportunity for funding. Schliemann had been at first skeptical about the identification of Hisarlik with Troy, but was persuaded by Calvert. As Schliemann was about to leave the area, Calvert wrote to him asking

him to take over the entire excavation. Schliemann agreed. The Calverts,

who made their money in the diplomatic service, expedited the

acquisition of a Turkish firman.

In 1868, Schliemann excavated an initial deep trench across the mound

called today "Schliemann's trench." These excavations revealed several

cities built in succession. Subsequent excavations by following

archaeologists elaborated on the number and dates of the cities.

Today a small village near the ruins, Tevfikiye, supports the

tourist trade visiting the Troia archaeological site. It lies within the

province of Çanakkale,

some 30 kilometres (19 mi) south-west of the provincial capital, also

called Çanakkale. The current map shows Ilium a little way inland from

the Scamander estuary across the plain of Troy. According to Korfmann,

due to Troy's location near the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Black Sea,

it was a central hub for military activities and trade, and the chief

site of a culture he calls the "Maritime Troja Culture," which extended

over the region between the Black and Aegean Seas. Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998.